Abstract| Volume 63, ISSUE 4, e72, April 2022

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Assessment of open surgical and endovascular management of true hepatic artery aneurysms over 20 years highlights increased rupture risk in females

      Background True hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs) are rare but have been associated with a significant risk of rupture and associated mortality. The 2020 release of HAA-specific clinical practice guidelines represented an important step toward management standardization. However, it remains essential to build on the body of evidence to further refine these recommendations.
      Methods The HAA management and outcomes from a single academic center during a 20-year period were retrospectively reviewed. We identified 72 patients from the institutional radiology database (November 24, 1999 to 2019). Pseudoaneurysms were excluded, and 48 patients were found to have had true HAAs. Forty-three HAA patients had sufficient medical records for inclusion in the analysis.
      Results Of the 43 patients with HAA included, 65% were male. The mean age was 63 years (range, 22-89 years). Of the HAAs, 72% presented asymptomatically, 16% had ruptured, and 12% were symptomatic at presentation. Most HAAs were of atherosclerotic origin (74%). In addition, 16% of the patients had other visceral aneurysms and 12% had nonvisceral aneurysms on presentation. The mean HAA size overall was 3.3 cm (range, 0.8-10.8 cm), with most being solitary (72%) and involving the common hepatic artery (65%). Rupture was more common in females (40%) and those with vasculitis (67%), with females representing 86% of all patients with rupture. The mean size at intervention was 4.8 cm (21 patients [49%]). Ten patients (23%) had undergone open surgical repair (seven elective and three emergent because of rupture). Eleven patients (26%) had undergone endovascular intervention (64% elective and 36% emergent). Nonoperative management was selected for 22 patients (51%). These patients had a mean HAA diameter of 2.1 cm, and 59% had a life-limiting illness. Of the 18 patients who had been initially monitored for a mean of 3.9 ± 4.1 years, 3 had undergone elective repair and 2 had minimal growth. None of these patients had a subsequently documented rupture.
      Conclusions True HAAs are a rare but important clinical phenomenon, with 16% of patients presenting with rupture in this study. Endovascular intervention is a promising alternative to open surgical repair, with no 30-day mortality, and is suitable for ruptured HAAs. Importantly, for the first time, our findings have demonstrated an increased risk of rupture for females, highlighting the need for additional data and ultimately, sex-specific guidelines.


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