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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Carotid Artery Stenting for the Treatment of Cervical Carotid Artery Dissection

Published:August 08, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2022.07.048

      Objective

      To assess the efficacy and safety of carotid artery stenting for the treatment of extracranial carotid artery dissection (CAD).

      Data Sources

      Systematic review using Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library.

      Review Methods

      A systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis statement. Data from the eligible studies were extracted and meta-analysed. Primary endpoints included post-operative mortality, cerebrovascular events (CEs), and modified Rankin Score for neurological disability (mRS) at 90 days. Subgroup analyses were performed between stenting of spontaneous and traumatic CAD, primary stenting vs. stenting after failed medical therapy (FMT), and stenting of CAD in the presence of tandem occlusions vs. stenting of isolated extracranial CAD.

      Results

      Twenty-four studies with 1 224 patients were included. Pooled post-operative mortality, CE, and mRS 0 – 2 rates were 1.71% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83 – 2.80), 6.45% (95% CI 2.80 – 11.10), and 76.13% (95% CI 64.15 – 86.50), respectively. The pooled stroke rate was 2.16% (95% CI 0.0 – 6.64). Spontaneous vs. traumatic CAD mortality rates were 3.20% (95% CI 1.80 – 4.88) and 0.00% (95% CI 0.00 – 1.59) while CE rates were 14.26% (95% CI 6.28 – 24.36) and 1.64% (95% CI 0.0 – 6.08). Primary stenting and stenting after FMT mortality rates were 0.63% (95% CI 0.0 – 5.63) and 0.0% (95% CI 0.0 – 2.24), while CE rates were 5.02% (95% CI 0.38 – 12.63) and 3.33% (95% CI 0.12 – 9.03). Mortality rates for tandem occlusions and isolated extracranial CAD were 5.62% (95% CI 1.76 – 10.83) and 0.23% (95% CI 0.0 – 1.88), respectively, while CE rates were 15.28% (95% CI 6.23 – 26.64) and 1.88% (95% CI 0.23 – 4.51). The methodological index for non-randomised studies score was 8.66 (low).

      Conclusion

      Both primary stenting and stenting of spontaneous CAD yielded unfavourable results with respect to stent thrombosis and stroke rates. Conversely, stenting following FMT had acceptable mortality and complication rates corroborating the use of stenting in the setting of CAD as a second line treatment. Due to the low quality of the included studies, definite conclusions cannot be drawn necessitating further research.

      Keywords

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