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Epidemiology and Outcomes of Peripheral and Non-Aortocaval Vascular Trauma in Scotland 2011 – 2018

Published:December 01, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2022.11.020

      Objective

      This population based study aimed to examine the demographics, mechanisms, and outcomes of patients in Scotland suffering peripheral and non-aortocaval vascular trauma between 2011 and 2018.

      Methods

      A retrospective observational study was conducted using prospectively collected data derived from the Scottish Trauma Audit Group (STAG) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2018. Peripheral and non-aortocaval vascular trauma patients were identified using Abbreviated Injury Severity (AIS) codes. Demographics, mechanisms, types of injury, severity, and outcomes were analysed.

      Results

      Of 30 831 patients admitted with trauma to Scottish hospitals, 569 (1.8%) patients suffered a vascular injury during the eight year study period with 275 (0.9%) patients sustaining a peripheral or non-aortocaval vascular injury. There were 221 (80%) men and 54 (20%) women with a median (range) age of 39 (14 – 88) years. Blunt trauma was responsible for 179 (65%) injuries, of which road traffic accidents were the most common mechanism. A further 67 (24%) injuries were due to penetrating trauma, of which assault was the most common cause. The most common injury was to abdominal arteries (e.g., hepatic, renal, splenic [n = 83]) with an associated mortality rate of 17%. The median (range) Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 16 (4 – 75). Sixteen (6%) patients died in the Emergency Department (ED). Two hundred and twenty-seven (83%) patients were taken to theatre during their admission with a 30 day peri-operative mortality rate of 10%, compared with an overall mortality rate of 16%. Injuries to an abdominal vein (e.g., portal, renal, splenic, superior mesenteric) had the highest number of associated deaths, with 11 (32%) of 34 cases resulting in a fatality.

      Conclusion

      There is a low incidence of vascular trauma in Scotland. Blunt force was responsible for more vascular injuries than penetrating trauma. Patients with peripheral and non-aortocaval vascular injuries are likely to be severely injured and suffer a high mortality rate.

      Keywords

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